MODENA (Modélisation de l’Observation à Distance de l’ENvironnement Maritime) was a project labeled by the Pole Mer Bretagne. MAREE has conducted experimental studies  concerning interactions between acoustic waves and the sea surface.

These acoustic measures focused on breaking waves to quantify some of their parameters (size, life duration, number) versus wave scales.

Innovative measures have also been done by means of microphones. Atmospheric sound propagation above the sea surface and its potential for a sea-surface characterization purpose is a new field of research. An application concerns the noise radiated by wind farms.

Picture of a rough sea surface
Time-frequency picture of a breaking wave event recorded by an hydrophone (top) and by a microphone (below)